Ocular Surface Diseases

What is eye allergy? What is it allergic to?

Eye allergy, also known as allergic conjunctivitis, is very common in the general population. It is the eye’s response to a substance (allergen) that irritates the eye. While the allergen does not have the same effect in the normal population, it causes a reaction in sensitive people. Unlike other conjunctivitis, it is not contagious. Symptoms include redness, itching, burning, swelling and difficulty looking at light.

Pollen, house dust mite, eye drops, make-up products, contact lens use, cosmetic products, pets can cause allergy. After a certain period of time after contact with the allergen, the symptoms regress and an allergy test can help to identify the allergen.

Is it possible to be protected?

The most important step is to identify the allergen and limit contact with the allergen. The patient is informed about not scratching the eyes. In seasonal allergies, it is recommended to stay indoors, wear a hat and sunglasses when outdoors.

If you have year-round allergies, it is recommended to make changes in your living space, such as regular dusting, removing carpets, and not keeping pets.

Can eye allergy be serious?

If left untreated and after prolonged exposure to the allergen, it can cause permanent damage to the surface of the eye. In addition, scratching the eyes can cause this damage to occur more easily.

How does the white part of the eye get infected and how is it diagnosed?

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the transparent layer covering the white part of the eye (conjunctiva) caused by various causes. In the diagnosis, it is questioned when the symptoms started and whether anyone else in the family has it. The most prominent symptom is eye redness. There may be complaints such as burrs, discharge, swelling of the lids, itching and burning, and difficulty looking at the light.

What are the causes of conjunctivitis?

It can develop after contact with viruses, bacteria or allergens. Eye contact with dirty hands, upper respiratory tract infection, using the belongings of an infected patient, dryness in the eye, use of unhygienic pools, cigarette smoke, polluted air, foreign bodies in the eye, and not using contact lenses cleanly are among the causes.

Is conjunctivitis permanent?

It is usually not permanent and improves with treatment. However, allergic conjunctivitis recurs after contact with the causative agent.

What is adenovirus conjunctivitis?

Adenovirus is a virus that causes infection in the respiratory tract and eyes. It is transmitted very quickly and easily. The most important way of transmission is touching the eye area without washing hands after contact with a sick person. Redness, watering, burning and stinging in the eye, swelling of the eyelids and the patient may have difficulty opening the eyes. It can cause painful lymph node swelling in front of the ear. Since it is very contagious, it can be transmitted to all members of the family. Contagiousness continues for 2-3 weeks, so contact with the sick person should be restricted, common items should be washed and separated. Treatment is symptomatic. Washing the eye with cold water, tear drops, anti-inflammatory eye drops are recommended.

What is the danger of adenovirus?

During infection, the body produces a hypersensitivity reaction to the virus. As a result of this reaction, lesions called subepithelial infiltrates may form on the cornea, the transparent layer of the eye. These lesions can impair the quality of vision. After weeks or months of treatment, these lesions may regress or remain as a permanent stain.

Adenovirüsün tehlikesi nedir?

Enfeksiyon sırasında vücut virüse karşı aşırı bir duyarlılık reaksiyonu oluşturur. Bu reaksiyon sonucu gözün saydam tabakası olan korneada subepitelyal infiltrat dediğimiz lezyonlar oluşabilir. Bu lezyonlar görme kalitesini bozabilir. Haftlar- aylar süren tedavi sonrası bu lezyonlar gerileyebilir ya da kalıcı bir leke olarak kalabilir.

What is dry eye?

Tears moisturize the epithelial surface. Tears are renewed on the epithelial surface with every blink of the eye. It acts as a barrier between the eye and the external environment, has an antimicrobial effect, nourishes and oxygenates the cornea, and prevents corneal damage during blinking. Under-secretion or over-evaporation leads to a deterioration in the quality of the tear film. This causes symptoms.

Who has tear deficiency?

The tear layer consists of 3 layers. Disruption of the balance between the mucous layer, the aqueous layer and the fatty (lipid) layer leads to symptoms. Rheumatic diseases such as lupus, sjögren’s, excessive smoking and alcohol consumption, medications used for acne, antidepressants, some antihypertensives, diabetes, radiation, eyelid inflammation called blepharitis, postmenopausal period, surgical procedures in the eye, eyelid problems, wind, dry environment, prolonged use of contact lenses, focusing on something without blinking for a long time can cause dry eye.

What are the symptoms of dry eye?

Burning, stinging, itching, blurred vision, redness in the eye, feeling of sand in the eye, difficulty in opening the eyes in the morning, light sensitivity due to irritation, difficulty in using contact lenses can be counted as dry eye symptoms.

How is it recognized and treated?

Measurement of tear quantity, determination of tear quality and evaluation of tear density are important in the examination. With the fluorescein tear test, the amount of tears and the disappearance time of the dye are checked. In the method called Schirmer test, a special filter paper is placed on the edge of the lower eyelid and waited for 5 minutes. The amount of tear is determined. After the examination, the cause of dry eye is determined and its severity is evaluated. Artificial tears and gels that keep the eye moist are recommended for treatment. Patients with severe dry eye may have a plaque inserted into the punctum, the area on the edge of the lid that drains tears.

What is pterygium?

Pterygium is a fibroblastic tissue that progresses to the transparent layer of the eye called the cornea.

It is benign, but it can progress over time and impair the quality of vision. It can also cause cosmetic complaints. It can cause stinging, redness, burning, itching and blurred vision. Family history, sun, hot steam and dust increase the risk.

How is it treated?

The treatment is surgical removal. Surgical treatment may be recommended for patients who have progressed to the cornea, causing astigmatism, decreased visual acuity, cosmetic discomfort, burning and stinging despite eye drop treatment. It is recommended to use sunglasses and avoid dust, wind and pollen.